The T-90 main battle tank is the most modern tank in the Russian army. Of conventional layout, the T-90 represents a major upgrade to every system in the T-72, including the main gun.
The T-90 retains the 125-mm 2A46-series main gun of the T-72 and T-80 which is capable of firing APDS, HEAT and HE-FRAG projectiles as well as time-fused shrapnel projectiles. The Refleks 9M119 AT-11 SNIPER laser-guided missile with a hollow-charge warhead is effective against armored targets and low-flying helicopters. The missile, which can penetrate 700-mm of RHAe out to 4000 meters, gives the T-90 the ability to engage other vehicles and helicopters before they can engage the T-90. The computerized fire control system and laser range-finder, coupled with the new Agave gunner's thermal sight, permit the T-90 to engage targets while on the move and at night.
The T-90 features the low silhouette of the earlier Russian tanks, with a low rounded turret centered on the hull, and is fitted with combined passive and active defenses which make the T-90 one of the best protected main battle tanks in the world. The glacis is covered by a new generation explosive reactive armor bricks, as is the turret. This ERA gives the turret an angled appearance, with the ERA bricks forming a "clam shell" appearance.
The T-90 is equiped with the Shtora-1 optronic counter measures system which is designed to disrupt the laser target designation and rangefinders of incoming ATGM. Shtora-1 is an electro-optical jammer that jams the enemy’s semiautomatic command to line of sight (SACLOS) antitank guided missiles, laser rangefinders and target designators.
The Shtora-1 system comprises four key components.
The electro-optical interface station, which includes a modulator, control panel and a jammer, two infrared lights, one on each side of the main gun (clearly seen on this picture), continuously emit coded pulsed infrared jamming when an incoming ATGM has been detected.
A bank of forward-firing grenade dischargers mounted on either side of the turret that are capable of firing grenades dispensing an aerosol screen. The screening aerosol takes less than 3 seconds to form and lasts about 20 seconds. The screen laying range is between 50-70 meters.
A control system comprising control panel, microprocessor, and manual screen-laying panel that processes the information from the sensors and activates the aerosol screen-laying system.
A laser warning system with precision and coarse heads for when it is being lased.
Picture added on 24 January 2011 at 15:48